Health is a state of body and mind where there is a balance between these two. The term health does not simply mean the absence of disease or physical fitness it has a wide scope. Discoveries in biology have now stated that the mind influences the body’s immune system through coordinating systems. In other words, the immune system maintains our health, and the mind and mental state can affect it. Health can be affected by various agents like genetic disorders, infections, lifestyle, habits, rest, and lack of yoga training or excess exercise.
A disease is a malfunctioning of the body or a part of it with specific symptoms is termed as Disease. It causes discomfort, impairs the health of the living organism, and changes the normal state of the body. There is an agent that causes disease by excess deficiency or absence.
Disease agents are of 6 main types. They are-
- Biological agents- These include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa mean helminthiasis, and arthropods. The biological agents are called pathogens.
- Nutrient agents– It comprises food components such as carbohydrates, fats proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water. Chemical agents include all pollutants like fumes, gases, dust, metals, and allergens like pollans and spores are examples.
- Physical agents— like heat cold, humidity, radiation, sound, pressure.
- Genetic disorders– are caused by genetic disorders or lack of underdevelopment.
- Mechanical agents– this comprises chronic friction or other mechanical forces which result in injury, pain dislocation, fracture due to excess yoga training or physical exercise.
Transmission of Diseases
The diseases are transmitted from reserve areas of infection to the healthy person in the following ways-
- Contact with infected persons– Certain diseases produce sores and lesions on the skin contact. With material discharge from the sores and lesions bring about infection. Infected blood, infected needles, infected towels can transmit infections.
- Droplet infection -Some diseases are caught by merely being in a confined place with an infected person. The latter throws out a tiny droplet of mucus while coughing, sneezing, or even talking. These droplets may contain bacteria and viruses.
- Contact with soil -The bacteria responsible for food poisoning enter the human body from the soil through injuries and skin. These viruses or bacteria penetrate the protective layers of the skin and cause infection.
- Animal bites- Viruses of rabies and hydrophobia are introduced through the wound caused by the bite of animals like dogs.
- Through placenta- During pregnancy due to age or injury, the placenta becomes permeable to certain pathogens such as bacteria and viruses of German measles and syphilis. These bacteria can pass from maternal blood into fetal blood.
How Pathogen Cause Disease?
Pathogens produce diseases in two ways:
Tissue Damage and Toxic secretion.
Tissue damages – the bacteria responsible for damage cells and cause infection in the lungs. They infect nerve cells. Some attack the protective membrane covering the brain tissue.
Toxin secretion – many microbes produce powerful poisons called toxins which cause diseases like Cholera, typhoid fever.
Symptom of diseases
The common symptoms are constant high fever, headache, extreme weakness abdominal pain, constipation, and inflammation. The symptoms may also include a single cracking chill which is followed by severer pain while breathing, cough, and headache. In severe cases lips and fingernails, I turn grey to blue in color. It is followed by infection of some other diseases such as influenza. Various fatal diseases cause a long-lasting effect and may ultimately lead to death.
Measures against communicable diseases
Preventive measures are precautionary steps taken to check the transmission of infectious diseases. These are –
- Education -People should be educated about diseases so that they may protect themselves against infection. Having knowledge of its origin, transmission and cure can protect them from various diseases.
- Isolation– A person suffering from an infectious disease should be isolated so that others do not catch an infection from them. This is called the quarantine period. This is been done to stop the transmission rate.
- Vaccination– Vaccination is an important thing to fight against infection and disease. People should get vaccinated to prevent infection, particularly during pandemics. vaccination is available against typhoid, tuberculosis, cholera, and many other diseases.
- Measures for personal hygiene include keeping the body clean intake of a clean dip in water vegetables fruits and other food items. On the other hand, covers proper disposal of waste and excreta pre-order cleaning and disinfection of water sources and observing standard practices of hygiene in public catering.
- Disposal of waste- Garbage waste, polluted water, food exposed to dust and flies are the chief sources of disease-causing organisms. Sanitary surroundings can prevent the spread of diseases.
- Sterilization– The patient’s belonging and thing used should be sterilized with disinfectants like soap, phenyl, and Dettol. An antiseptic lotion may be used wherever necessary.
- Physical training– The studies have shown that the people who undergo physical exercise or yoga training are in good state of fighting against these diseases and their body is able to defend themselves.