Autism spectrum disorders, also called pervasive developmental disorders, ranging from the sever disorders labeled autistic disorder to the milder disorder called Asperger syndrome. Autism spectrum disorders characterized by problems in social interaction, the problem in verbal, min verbal communication, and repetitive behavior ( Boucher, 2009). Children with these disorders may also show typical responses to sensory experiences. Autism spectrum disorder can often be detected in children as early as 1 to 3 years of age.
- Autistic syndrome
An autistic syndrome is a severe disorder that includes problems in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Estimates indicate that approximately 2 to 5 every 10000 young children in the USA have an autistic disorder. Boys are about four times more likely to have an autistic disorder than girls.
- Asperger syndrome
Asperger syndrome is called a mild autism spectrum disorder. In this syndrome child’s verbal language is good, milder nonverbal language problems, and confined interests and relationships ( Benet, 2008). Children with Asperger syndrome have some obsessive repetitive patterns.
The causes of autism spectrum disorder are that autism is a brain dysfunction with an abnormality in brain structure and Neurotransmitters ( Boucher, 2009). Genetic factors likely play a role in the development of autism spectrum disorder ( Harmon, 2007). A recent study revealed that mutation- missing or duplicated pieces of DNA on chromosome 16 can raise a child’s risk of developing autism.
Children with autism find it good with structured classrooms and instructions given in small groups. As with children who are mentally retarded, behavior modification techniques are sometimes effective in autistic children’s to lead.
The clinical picture in autistic disorder
Children with autism show varying degrees of impairments and capabilities. An important sign is less friendly even in the early days of life. Mothers often remember such babies never being cuddly, never reaching out when being picked up, and never appearing to notice the comings and goings of other people.
A social deficit
Children with autism never show any love or affection and they even don’t pay much attention to the fact who their parents are. The child with autism spectrum disorder is thought to have a visionless mind that is unable to act or see what others are doing. The lack of social interaction among children with autism has been well described. A behavioral observational study by Lord and Magill Evans (1995) noted that small children with autism engaged in fewer social interactions than other children.
Absence of speech
A child having autism doesn’t imitate. This shows that a child has an absence or limited speech. Even if the speech is there it will be less like only responding in yes or no fashion or using just a few words. Whereas the echoing of parents’ verbal behavior is found to a small degree in normal children as they experiment with their ability to produce articular speech, persistent echo Lia is found in about 75% of autistic children.
Treatment and outcomes of autism
The treatment for the autistic disorder is poor. Moreover, because of the typically poor response to treatment, children with autism are often subjected to a range of fads and novel approaches than turn out to be equally ineffective.
The drugs most often used in the treatment of autism are antidepressants, antipsychotic medication, and stimulants. If irritability and aggressiveness are present, the medical management of a case might involve the use medication it lowers the level of aggression, although there is no sure free medication approved for this purpose, the drug clomipramine has had some beneficial effects
Behavior therapy in an instructional setting has been used successfully in the elimination of self-injurious behavior, the mastery of the fundamental of social behavior, and the development of some language skills. Some of the other impressive results with children with autism has also been obtained in projects that involve parents, with treatment in the home. Treatment contacts with parents specify the desired behavior changes in their child and spell out the explicit techniques for bringing about these changes. Such contracting acknowledges the value of the parents as potential agents of changes.